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Introduction

AI face change is a product under Neuro Network and Machine Learning technologies. And this article aims to be a tutorial that could let people who do not have experience in Machine Learning to replace the face in one video with other faces.

Key Words: #deepfakes #faceswap #face-swap #deep-learning #deeplearning #deep-neural-networks #deepface #deep-face-swap #fakeapp #fake-app #neural-networks #neural-nets

What is DeepFaceLab?

DeepFaceLab is a tool that utilizes machine learning to replace faces in videos.  Github Project: Click here. DeepFaceLab does not have GUI but it does not require a high RAM (at least 2g).

1. Environment

Hardware requirement:

I. Graphics Card: Nvidia Graphic Card with CC(Compute Capability)>3.0 CC Chart, or at least GTX 1060 6G. AMD not be supported 🙁

II. CPU: Intel or AMD CPU recommended with RAM>8G

III. OS: Windows 10 x64

Software requirement:

I. Microsoft Visual Studio 2015: Download

in custom option, select Visual C++

II. CUDA 9.0 For Windows 10: Download

III. CuDNN 7.0.5: Download

Open the downloaded CuCNN zip, and copy the three files in it to CUDA’s install location

Red files were copied from the CuDNN file

The Environment in this tutorial:

Graphics Card: Nvidia GTX GeForce 1070 8G

RAM: 16.0GB

CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-7700k 4.2GHz

OS: Windows 10 Pro 1903 – 18362.10024

2. DeepFaceLab

I. Install:

DeepFaceLab: Download

II. Preparation

1. Prepare two videos, and name them:

The video has the face need to be replaced as data_dst

The video has the face to replace to another video’s face as data_src

2. Put those two into the workspace

III. Processing

There are many .bat files, do as shown below:

All .bat needed

(1) clear workspace

While doing a new model of Face Change, you want clear the previous data

(2) extract images from video data_src

Using Enter to skip (set as default)

(3.2) extract images from video data_dst FULL FPS

Using Enter to skip (set as default)

(4) data_src extract faces MT all GPU

Identify the faces in data_src and pull out

(4.2.2) data_src sort by similar histogram

(4.1) data_src check result

Delete unpleasant faces

(4.2.1) data_src sort by blur

(4.1) data_src check result

Delete unpleasant faces

(5) data_dst extract faces MT all GPU

(5.2) data_dst sort by similar histogram

(5.1) data_dst check results

Delete unpleasant faces

(5.3) data_dst sort by blur

(5.1) data_dst check results

Delete unpleasant faces

(6) train H128

Using Enter to skip (set as default)

Press P to update previews; press Enter to save and quit

We wait until the loss rate close to 0.02

Training state with around 2.5 loss rate
Training state with around 1.0 loss rate

(7) convert H128

Keys
Blending

Factors:

Erode mask
Blur Mask
Hist match
Face Scale
Factors in this case

Press Enter to convert the whole frames

(8) converted to mp4

Whole video would be uploaded later on

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PS:IT’S NOT A RESEARCH PAPER

Abstract

This paper begins with the Messier 42 nebula, talking about how different color lights form due to the electron transport in Bohr’s model. How these lights are absorbed by gas and form the absorption spectrum, then how these lights are captured by sensors with the explanation between CCD and CMOS sensors. The history of spectrometer also includes plus the motivation and the reason why people are keeping doing that.

Key Words: Messier 42, Spectrum, Bohr Model, Sensor, Photoelectric effect, Spectrometer, Wavelength, Energy transform, Frequency, Coulomb’s equation

Introduction

When we were just children, sometimes laying on a green field at night the light pollution is not that bad. People lie in the starlight, and the huge Milky Way fills all of the eyesight. Surely, it is night, but when your eyes adapt to the dim, the elegant shining beauty would amaze you, indeed. Sometimes people would notice there are something different lie on the sky, something bigger with different colors. After that people who are curious about that seek for answers, Finally, they found that is called “nebula”.

The “M42”

            M42 or the Orion Nebula, mostly the most popular object in the Messier objects table. It is 1,344 ± 20 light years away(Bringmann, 2017). M42 is a diffuse nebula, which means it is formed ionized gases and diffuse lights with different wavelengths. Every day, there are stars forming, M42 is the closest factory of star from the planet Earth

Figure 1 The M42 Nebula From Francesco Battistella(2017)

This paper going introduce and explain the theory of how these colors were formed, how people transform light to digit, and the way people identify chemicals from light, plus its history, and why we do it with the foreword of M42.

Excitation and emission spectra

Light is an electromagnetic wave, it could transport energy, and because of its wave-particle duality, we can say photons have energy inside. In the Bohr Model, it could be easier to explain the whole thing because it is very clear without talking about the probability wave function or The Heisenberg Uncertainty.

Figure 2 Bohr Model and light (n.d.). Retrieved June 4, 2019

As the diagram shows left, when an electron absorbs energy it would be excited, and goes outside from its ground state orbit, and it goes back to inside orbits when they release energy. The different colors of the light release directly connect to the difference of energy because the difference of colors is the result of diverse of the wavelengths, and energy relates to the frequency of the wave follows:E=hf

Put these two into the common equation:v=f\lambda  since the velocity just equal to the speed of light, which is a constant, higher frequency result in low wavelength, vice versa. So when there is an inside orbit which contain more energy because of the Coulomb’s equation: \int{F=\int\frac{1}{4\pi\varepsilon_0}\cdot\frac{q_1q_2}{r^2}dr}=U=-W=KE=\frac{1}{4\pi\varepsilon_0}\cdot\frac{q_1q_2}{r}

Figure 3 Wavelength, Frequency, Spectrum and Energy From Errante, F.

As r gets smaller, the energy gets higher, so the inner orbit emits light with higher energy, which means it is in higher frequency and low wavelength result in more red light.

The forming of three main colors

There are three main colors the M42 nebula has: Red, Blue-violet, and Green.

Red light is the result of H- radiation, mainly, it talks about Hydrogen atom in Bohr’s model, the electron jump from n=3 orbit to n=2 orbit, and result in long wavelength of 656.28 nm(H-alpha Emission, 2013) which is red.

Blue-violet light is the result of massive O-Class stars radiation at the core of the nebula. By Harvard spectral classification, stars are classified to O B A F G K M from high temperature to low temperature. There is a pithy formula: “Oh Boy! A Fine Girl Kiss Me” Since O-class is hot, which means it has high energy, so O-class has high frequency and short wavelength, result in Blue-violet light.

Figure 4 Star classes and wavelength from Pickles, A. J. (1998)

Green used to be mysterious in the early 20th century, because there is no known spectral lines could explain that, people even think they discovered a new element. However, by the developing of modern physics, people found the green hue is caused by the low probability transition in doubly ionized oxygen, that only could happen in the lab, but still possible happen in deep space wherein extreme condition.

Photoelectric effect: How to get a photo of a deep space object

We all know the camera could take photos, but how? Why light could be transformed to digit version, that is the contribution of the Photoelectric effect. Einstein gave the mathematical explanation for it. Mainly, if a photon carries enough energy, it could let the metal emit an electron carries with same amount kinetic energy: KE=\frac{1}{2}mv^2

Figure 5 Axiom of Photoelectric effect From Simple Science (2019)

Sensor Mechanism: CCD and CMOS

The sensor is where the camera accepts lights, and the place photoelectric happens. There are two main kinds of sensor exist in the market: CCD(Charge-coupled Device) and CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor). The difference between these two main in the way they collecting voltage signals.

Figure 6 CCD and CMOS From Stefano

From Figure 6, each block is a pixel that the photoelectric effect happens, when there is a photo hit the pad, one electron would go out and create a voltage signal, the difference between CCD and CMOS is shows up on their signal processing mechanism. Each pixel of CCD only transform photo to electron signal then process line by line, but each pixel of CMOS could process independently.

In Astrophotography, people more like to use CCD because it would produce less noise and record faster. Heat is the main cause of useless data pixel because the heat would mess up the voltage signal, since CMOS process data on every pixel it would cause huge heat during a long time capturing which is very common in astrophotography, but it is much better on CCD because of it process data line by line. However, to minimize the noise, some people would cool down their sensor, so there is something called cooled CCD, people cool their sensors (normally 253K) to prevent noise as possible as they can.

Spectrometer: Way to identify the chemical by its emitted light

Since the different color of light it the result of different elements jump orbitals, we could inversely use this property to identify the element combination of one object. Then, the spectrometer is invented. The grating spectrometer has the clearest mechanism with the cheap prize. It could separate one combined light source to spectrum distribution just like how Figure 7 shows.

Figure 7 Spectrometer’s Mechanism From Spectrometer(WIKI).

When a continuous light goes through a cloud, most of the spectrum would not be absorbed, but if the cloud meets the light with a certain spectrum which has the energy just enough to let its atom jump excited, the cloud would absorb it. So when people on earth observe it, they would find there are some black gaps in the continuous spectrum.

Figure 8 Spectrum’s absorption From Anthony(2013)
Figure 9 Spectrum’s absorption From Anthony(2013)

Take our star as an example, it is a G-class star with yellow looking. The black lines called Fraunhofer lines. Here in figure 9, for example, D-line represent element sodium, G-line is iron and calcium, C-line is H\\alpha…etc.

History of Spectrometer

            Newton seems to be the first one who builds a spectrometer, but he did not use that to build some vital theory theories.

Figure 10 Spectrometer used by Kirchhoff and Bunsen From History of spectroscopy(2019)

Bunsen invented a better flame source called Bunsen’s burner, now is common in labs and Kirchhoff designed the rest of it. Later, when Kirchhoff used this spectrometer to observe the sun, he found there are several black lines with different brightness, he guesses that might cause by different elements, then he uses some flames made by different sources to prove this hypothesis, and he finds he was right. After proven his hypothesis, he graphed 570 lines to indicate different elements.

The reason why we doing this

Using spectrometer could help us discover what made the early universe, and how the universe evolved because the nebula is the birth room of stars, it has a similar condition like the early universe

    To get a better image of deep space target, know their spectrum is very important because people could choose a more suitable filter to cut off other disturbing spectra to improve the image quality.

    And the mountain is there, a human being must climb it or disappear in inner dispute history.

Conclusion

            M42 is a very beautiful nebula which is the closest star birth room, the light goes through the gas cloud be to absorb some with a certain wavelength, comes to earth with absorption spectrum. The light is captured by sensors(mostly CCDs), because of the photoelectric effect, it is transformed to a voltage signal, finally become digit data, processed by computer become a gorgeous image. Knowing that helps people know more about the universe and how it formed, people use this information to take a better photo by selecting more suitable filters. Human being knows the world around it a little more, exited their fundamental curiosity, which finally becomes the reason people come out of the earth but not root on it.

Reference

Bringmann, T., Conrad, J., Cornell, J. M., Dal, L. A., Edsjö, J., Farmer, B., … & Scott, P. (2017). DarkBit: a GAMBIT module for computing dark matter observables and likelihoods. The European Physical Journal C, 77(12), 831.

F. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap171129.html

. A stellar spectral flux library: 1150–25000 Å. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 110(749), 863.

Errante, F. (n.d.). Energy and radiation wavelength. Retrieved June 5, 2019, from https://www.radiondistics.altervista.org/frequency_wavelength_energy_radiation_calculator.htm

(n.d.). Retrieved June 2, 2019, from, https://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/476/488316/ch09.html

H-alpha Emission. (2013, May 08). Retrieved June 5, 2019, from https://ismlandmarks.wordpress.com/h-alpha-emission/

Stefano, M. (n.d.). . Retrieved June 5, 2019, from http://meroli.web.cern.ch/lecture_cmos_vs_ccd_pixel_sensor.html

Anthony, S. (2013, October 02). Every color of the Sun’s rainbow: Why are there so many missing? Retrieved June 5, 2019, from https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/167878-every-color-of-the-suns-rainbow-why-are-there-so-many-missing

Spectrometer. (n.d.). Retrieved June 5, 2019, from https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrometer#/media/File:Spectrometer_schematic.gif

History of spectroscopy. (2019, March 04). Retrieved June 5, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_spectroscopy#/media/File:Kirchhoffs_first_spectroscope.jpg

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Boys, set your calculator to polar mode, and draw a graph of
r=4sin(3θ), then set the first interval of [0,π] and the second one: [0, 2π]


[0,π]

[0,2π]

They looks exactly the same, isn’t it?

And if we take of the integral of these two to find the area, for the graph with interval [0,π], area = 4π, but for the graph with [0,2π] the area is 8π, thus, which one is the “true” one we want to find?

I. The Form of Trig Polar Equation

For a trig polar equation, the form is looks like: r=asin(bθ) or cos etc…

a decide the “size of the graph”

b decide the number of “blades”

II. Odd number b and Even number b

The thing is vital :

*The number of blades = 2b

-For even number of b, the blades created are separated(here b=4, so there are 8 “blades”):

-For odd number b, the “blades” are covered with each other, take example of r=4sin(3θ) with [0, 2π], it actually graphed 6 blades, but each two are in the same position covered the another one, so we could only see three. If we do the integral to calculate its area, we get the area of 6 blades.

Thus, if we want to find the area of 3 blades, you can set the interval of [0, π], or just simply divide the area with interval [0, 2π] by two

It’s a very interesting trick dealing with polar equation.

P.S. : hpbsd for me~

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ʻOumuamua is Not a Spacecraft but a Comet

Deemo Chen, grade 11 student. Barstow School – Ningbo Campus.

Abstract

1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua), a recently discovered asteroid in a hyperbolic orbit, is likely the first macroscopic object of extrasolar origin identified in the solar system. This paper mainly gives reasons why ‘Oumuamua should be a comet, by explaining three unusual behaviors of ‘Oumuamua which are unnormal ratio, strange track eccentricity, and Peculiar Acceleration; disproving four main hypothesizes to say ʻOumuamua is not a comet, then provide an evidence of reflectivity of surface of ʻOumuamua to prove ʻOumuamua in a regular interval of comet group. Thus, ʻOumuamua is most likely to be a comet.

Keywords: ʻOumuamua (1I/2017 U1); extraterrestrial intelligenceISM: individual objects (1I&2017 U1)minor planets, asteroids: generalminor planets, asteroids: individual (1I&2017 U1).

Introduction:

ʻOumuamua (1I/2017 U1) is an object from outside of the solar system by first observed by Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System(Pan-STARRS) located at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, USA (“IAU MPC”), from the IAU website, we can find that ʻOumuamua is also the first object human ever observed from outside the solar system. We are trying to figure out where exactly it came from. The thing is, there are several things shows it is not an ordinary object and can possibility to be a spacecraft may be made by aliens. However, I do not agree with this statement; I tend to describe it is an unusual comet by against three main theories exist which say ʻOumuamua is not a comet.

The ratio and shape of ʻOumuamua

Since we cannot use an optical telescope to truly see how ʻOumuamua looks like, the only way we can use it make the scientific hypothesis of the shape of it.   For a rigid body, it will rotate around the maximum inertia axis(MIA), which is the axis with the most considerable moment of inertia. Dynamically, it can be proved that the rotation of the rigid body around other inertia spindles is unstable if we consider the slight deformation damping of the object.

Figure 1Explorer_1 From NASA Accessed 2019/1/13 https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/explorer/explorer1.gif

Just like the graph of Explorer_1, which is the first artificial satellite launched by America, it has a long and thin shape. The blue line points the long spindle of Explorer_1, and that is the minimum inertia spindle of this structure, the red line shows the maximum inertia spindle. People at that time hope the satellite could rotate around the long axis, but the result of that be the Explorer_1 cannot stabilize its posture at all, even they did successfully launch the satellite, but Explorer_1 cannot do many planned tasks.

In this way, we can assume that ʻOumuamua is rotating around its MIS. And the diagram below helps us to figure what could be the possible shape of ʻOumuamua.

Light curve of ʻOumuamua. All of the magnitudes have been scaled using the measured colors; the error bars indicate 1σ photometric errors. (Meet, et al. 2)

According to the Light curve of ʻOumuamua, the red dotted line corresponds 10:1:1 triaxial ellipsoid with a 20% variation in albedo across the surface (Meech et al. 2), and the dotted curve made by observation data from different telescopes of ʻOumuamua shows a nearly perfect fitness to the light curve model of a 10:1:1 triaxial ellipsoid. By analyzing the interval between two relative curve minima points, we could approximate the rotating period as 7.34 h. Also, by the hydrostatic balance theory, the size of ʻOumuamua cannot construct itself to be a sphere.

For a rigid body, it is tough to rotate in this way, it will quickly be rapture, and it from outer space and we even cannot figure out it from which galaxy (Ye, et al. 3), so it must have traveled in space for a long time, and that means ʻOumuamua should keep rotating like this for a long time, the possibility of that should be very small, because if P(x)= . P(d) should be minimal (d refers to the distance ʻOumuamua travel, x= ʻOumuamua keep this long and thin shape), and because this shape is too unusual for human, so many people believe ʻOumuamua is an artificial object or spacecraft.

However, the evidence of this hypothesis has some vulnerabilities.

First, the model of the shape of ʻOumuamua have some problem, since we do not have the graphic evidence of the shape, if only according to the light curve, there are much more shapes could fit this model, or there is a light absorbing material covered on, and the following statement about “rigid body” cannot works because other shapes could prevent them from rapture.

Second, we do need to assume that ʻOumuamua is a rigid body, because for a rigid body, they will rupture because of their inside force, so if ʻOumuamua is not a rigid body but made by relatively elasticity materials, in this way, ʻOumuamua could keep a long and thin shape but not broke.

Third, I think even ʻOumuamua truly looks long and thin, that is not a strange thing to human, because if one thing could exist in this world by way we know about physics, then it is properly, “Practice is the sole criterion for testing knowledge”, we should believe in data, whatever how impossible it looks like.

In this way, I think the shape of ʻOumuamua has nothing to doubt about.

The Orbit of ʻOumuamua

Figure 2 Meech, et al. 3

The path of Oumuamua (1I/2017 U1) through the Solar System.

“The orbit of a typical Halley-type comet is shown for comparisonas the solid grey line. The inset shows the inner Solar System; the solid linesegment along the trajectory taken by ‘Oumuamua (dashed)indicates the short window of two weeks during which it was bright” (Meech, et al. 1), As we can see that its track eccentricity is only 1.1956 ± 0.0006, it looks got into the solar system vertically to the zodiac and soon go back the same way, it just like aim to the sun. So, it could easily be seems as a spacecraft want to use the gravity of the sun to redirect its orbit because it is the best way we can think to save the energy for a shuttle.

Orbit offset

Marco Micheli’s team analyzed the full observational dataset, which includes 177 ground-based and 30 HST based astrometric positions (for a total of 414 scalar measurements), applying the procedures and assumptions discussed in Methods. Their analysis shows that the observed orbital arc cannot be fitted in its entirety by a trajectory governed solely by gravitational forces due to the Sun, the eight planets, the Moon, Pluto, the 16 most massive bodies in the asteroid main belt and relativistic effects14. As shown in diagram D1-a, the residuals in right ascension and declination of the best-fitting gravity-only trajectory are incompatible with the formal uncertainties: ten data points deviate by more than 5σ in at least one coordinate, and 25 are discrepant by more than 3σ. Furthermore, the offsets (as large as 22″ for the 2017 October 14 Catalina observation) are not distributed randomly but show clear trends along the trajectory. (Micheli 1)

Diagram 1(D2):

The most reasonable reason for the offset of the orbit is the force of comet dust which will give a power to the object when it spread out of the object, however, by the data from Micheli’s team (Micheli 3), they built a model of comet could have this kind of behavior, they found even 2kg of the dust from the object is enough for telescope  to observe, the thing is, from the actual diagram, we cannot see any dust from ʻOumuamua.

Figure 3Micheli 3

Is that means ʻOumuamua is not a comet but could change its orbit by itself and become a spacecraft? It could be a reasonable guess, but I think there is a better explanation that the object has released only a small quantity of dust, probably in the form of larger grains which are hard to see. 

Also, by the theory of Fitzsimmons’s team, we have another way to explain that there is a cover on ʻOumuamua’s surface which prevents the ice inside of ʻOumuamua spread out from itself, and the cover is so thick that even the sun cannot put effects on ʻOumuamua in that short time, that they reported the spectroscopic characterization of ‘Oumuamua,  and finding it to be variable with time but similar to organically rich surfaces found in the outer Solar System. The observable ISO population is expected to be dominated by comet-like bodies in agreement with our spectra, yet the reported inactivity implies a lack of surface ice. (Fitzsimmons, Alan, et al 4). This is consistent with predictions of an insulating mantle produced by long-term cosmic ray exposure. An internal icy composition cannot, therefore, be ruled out by the lack of activity, even though ‘Oumuamua passed within 0.25 AU of the Sun.

So ʻOumuamua is more likely to be a comet in this way.

The theory to be a LightSailBecause of the usual orbit of ‘Oumuamua, it could consider an artificial origin; one possibility is that Oumuamua is a LightSail, floating in interstellar space as debris

from advanced technological equipment (Bialy 1), As a solar sail, its propulsion is dependent on solar radiation alone. Solar photons exert radiation pressure on the sail, producing a small degree of acceleration. Thus, the solar sail will be propelled by force from sunlight itself, and not by the charged particles of the solar wind.

       Even Mr. Bialy mentioned that ‘Oumuamua could be alien craft since its orbit is so unusual: “Alternatively, a more exotic scenario is that ‘Oumuamua may be a fully operational probe sent intentionally to Earth vicinity by an alien civilization.” (Bialy 4)

       It is just an educated guess of the orbit of ‘Oumuamua, but I think this hypothesis did not consider more, because we already prove that ‘Oumuamua is rotating, but if LightSail works, it must let one side of itself toward the sun, so the theory of a LightSail could not work.

The reflectivity of the surface

       Since all hypothesis of saying is not a comet be proved as wrong, here I can give relevant evidence that ‘Oumuamua is a comet.

Figure 4Meech 3

The reflectivity of the surface of ‘Oumuamua. The surface reflectivity of ‘Oumuamua is consistent with D-type asteroids and comets. Data are normalized to 1 at 0.65 μ m, and the error bars reflect the 1σ standard deviation. (Meech 3)

       From the data given by Meech’s team,‘Oumuamua’s reflectivity is pretty close to D-type asteroids and comets, compare to Comet 67P, Comet 9P, and Comet 103P, it does not have much differentness.

One possible way to check what‘Oumuamua truly is

The challenge of reaching the object within a reasonable timeframe is formidable due to its high heliocentric hyperbolic excess velocity of about 26 km/s (Hein 1); Much faster than any vehicle yet launched, Launching a spacecraft to ’Oumuamua in a reasonable timeframe of 5-10 years requires a hyperbolic solar system excess velocity between 33 to 76 km/s for mission durations between 30 to 5 years. (Hein 4) It is demonstrated that based on existing technologies now human have such as from the Parker Solar Probe, launchers such as the Falcon Heavy and Space Launch System could send spacecraft with masses ranging from dozens to hundreds of kilograms to 1I/’Oumuamua, if launched in 2021. A further increase in spacecraft mass can be achieved with an additional Saturn flyby post solar Oberth maneuver. The potential of more advanced technologies such as laser electric propulsion, solar and laser sails would also allow for chasing ’Oumuamua, although their development will likely push launch dates farther into the future and might be more attractive for reaching future ‘Oumuamua-like objects. And we can chase it in 2029.

Conclusion

Even the shape of ’Oumuamua is strange. Its orbit changes but we cannot observe any dust, and the model is suitable to be a LightSail, but all we can find a reasonable explanation. So `Oumuamua is a comet –a tiny one, with perhaps different chemistry and an unusual shape, but colored like Solar System comets, and outgassing like our comets or covered with an organic layer. So, we were indeed lucky to find it, but we did not need to be too fortunate to find an interstellar asteroid.  And we still have the chance to take a clear picture of this comet to see how exactly it looks like if we want to.

Works Cited

Bialy, Shmuel, and Abraham Loeb. “Could Solar Radiation Pressure Explain ‘ʻOumuamua’s Peculiar Acceleration?” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 868.1 (2018): L1.

<http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/aaeda8/meta>. Accessed on 19 December 2018.

Fitzsimmons, Alan, et al. “Spectroscopy and thermal modelling of the first interstellar object 1I/2017 U1 ‘ʻOumuamua.” Nature Astronomy 2.2 (2018): 133.

<https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-017-0361-4>. Accessed on 19 December 2018.

Hein, Andreas M., et al. “Project Lyra: Sending a Spacecraft to 1I/’ʻOumuamua (former A/2017 U1), the Interstellar Asteroid.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.03155 (2017).

<https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03155>. Accessed on 19 December 2018.

Meech, Karen J., et al. “A brief visit from a red and extremely elongated interstellar asteroid.” Nature 552.7685 (2017): 378.

<https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25020>. Accessed on 19 December 2018.

Micheli, Marco, et al. “Non-gravitational acceleration in the trajectory of 1I/2017 U1 (‘ʻOumuamua).” Nature 559.7713 (2018): 223.

< https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0254-4>. Accessed on 19 December 2018.

“The International Astronomical Union Minor Planet Center.” IAU Minor Planet Center, minorplanetcenter.net//iau/lists/MPDiscsNum.html.

https://minorplanetcenter.net//iau/lists/MPDiscsNum.html. Accessed on 8 January 2018

Ye, Quan-Zhi, et al. “1I/2017 U1 (‘ʻOumuamua) is hot: imaging, spectroscopy, and search of meteor activity.” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 851.1 (2017): L5.

<http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9a34/meta>. Accessed on 19 December 2018.

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Let We do Moon Stacking! And Processing

Since I moving my telescope to my school for my Astronomy Club, I put it for a long time because my club is still weak and no one in the club could be seem as a real club number. But I set up a small observation recently with another guy who are not in my club, and I took 16 photos of moon by my lovely A7RIII, however, the truth prove that it is useless to stack 16 photos, but I think it is a nice try.

All things: 16 original photos, AutoStakkert 3, RegiStax and Photoshop

I. Stacking

Open AutoStakkert 3, put 16 photos into it.

For moon, choose “Surface”, because my materials have low noises, so I set “2” as my Noise Robust.

Use [Ctrl]+[Left Click] to choose a area with obvious characteristics

Click “2)Analyse”

Hint: Close all other software, it need RAM

After Analyse. we need to choose Aps for locate different frames. Click “Manual Draw”, then click “Place AP grid”

For “Stack Options”, choose tif format and do not use its sharpening function, RegiStax and Photoshop are much better than it.

Finally, we get a big pic, but it looks has no difference comparing to the original materials, so we need to do sharpen work.

II. Sharpening

Put the stacked material into RegiStax, than move the Slider, the purpose here is to make the graph as clear as it can be, but without noise

And for the works be done on Photoshop, since it is easy to do, just ignore it.

Final Work

Mooooooooooon

I know it looks bad, here are my tips:

  1. Take video instead of photos
  2. Make the materials focus on the objects but not space, because the space will include a lot of pixels which will let the software unwork.
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Is KIC-8462852 A Dyson Sphere?

 

Abstract

By the recent research and observation, there is a star numbered KIC-8462852 spread a strange flux and decreasing of its brightness without clear periodicity. By the suspects, people have already given and the Drake equation, there is no significant evidence to prove that that is an impossibility; therefore, the inference is there is a possibility to be a Dyson Sphere, which means there is also have a possibility to have another civilization.

Key Words:

Dyson Sphere, astronomy, star, KIC-8462853, alien

Introduction

According to the latest experimental observation conducted by the Planet Hunter Program by Zooniverse , the brightness of star KIC-8462852 has decreased about 22% surprisingly without apparent periodicity by Boyajian’s confirming “These show that the flux is relatively constant for most of that time, but is punctuated by a number of substantial dips in flux, including a 15% drop near day 800, and a whole sequence of dips (with one reaching a depth of 22%)”(Boyajian 3). Such kind of exciting and strange behavior of star KIC-8462852 causes an extensive and hot discussion, and some media reports even show it is a sign of discovery of alien, which caused a considerable influence in public.  There are many different kinds of theories about this unnormal behavior such as Eva claim that KIC-8462852’s behavior is caused by the transit of a large comet family. (Bodman 1), a cloud of gas, error of the instrument etc.. However, the study and research are just at the beginning, because the specific and one-directing reports are not shown yet. Here comes the question—Is KIC-
8462852 A Dyson Sphere?

What is Dyson Sphere?

The first thing will be going to talk about is: What is Dyson Sphere? Recalling Stapledon’s description, Dyson proposed similar structures in a scientific paper in 1960. Dyson realized that alien civilizations could be recognized by their waste heat, which would be detectable as infrared radiation. Dyson proposed that really advanced civilization would re-engineer thrive solar systems, perhaps dismantling planets to form a shell of satellites around their star to capture its energy.( Tate, “Dyson Spheres: How Advanced Alien Civilizations Would Conquer the Galaxy (Infographic)”) We could divide civilizations to three levels by Kardashev scale :I civilization, which means this civilization could completely use the whole energy of its living plane and its satellite; II civilization, which means this civilization could collect the whole energy of Galaxy; III civilization, which means this civilization could completely use the whole energy of the galactic system. (Tate, “Dyson Spheres: How Advanced Alien Civilizations Would Conquer the Galaxy (Infographic)”). Our civilization level is 0.8 which means we even not a civilization.

Strange behavior

In the observation program “Planet Hunter” by Zooniverse which a public welfare program is, for people to find interesting stars by human eyes which hard for the instrument to do. Volunteers found an interesting planet which shows a strange behavior. (Boyajian 2) The Star KIC-8462852 is not distributing light evenly but looks like be covered by something, scientists are already excluded from the problem of data error and aircraft covered, people give a lot of reason for that.

Instrument Error

The first guessing comes to people’s mind is the problem of instruments. By the words from Boyajian: “We confirm that the dipping signals in the data are not caused by

any instrumental or data processing artifact, and thus are astrophysical in origin.”(Boyajian 2) Before publishing the paper, people have already checked the data analysis software and detector of Kepler telescope, photons become dark on several different pixels on CCD, and four CCDs on the telescope show this situation in different time(Coughlin et al. 2014), which mean it cannot be problem of CCD, some other teams also built and check the original data with the same result, so it is nearly impossible to be this kind of situation.

Covering by Asters in Solar System

Calculations show that if the shelter is located inside the solar system, it must have a diameter of at least 1 astronomical unit, a distance of 10,000 astronomical units from the Sun (ie the scale of the Kuiper Belt to the Oort Cloud), and a distance away from the ecliptic plane (Boyajian’s yellow tube of 62 degrees). . Considering that humans have little knowledge of the outer solar system, it is unclear how large this possibility is.

Surrounded by a star-stabilized object (such as a black hole) and its accretion disk

However, the probability that it happens to be seen by us is very small, only one in a million. Considering that only 200,000 stars were observed by Kepler, the probability is very small.

Comet or other

Boyajian’s original paper already discussed the situation of comets (Boyajian “What the flux” 17). Bodman and Quillen of the University of Rochester believe that the second large drop in luminosity (that is, a decrease around 1500 days) can be explained by the same group of comets(“Where’s the flux” 2), most of which are in the same orbit, possibly by the same event. Generated, such as the disintegration of planets or the gravitational disturbance of companion stars. To block 20% of the main star’s light, it requires 30 comets with a radius of 100 km or 300 with a radius of 10 km. It is still difficult to explain the decline of the first time (that is, around the 800th day) because the first decline is smoother and slower, and the number of comets required increases to 70 (radius 100 km) or 700 respectively. (10 km radius). The comet’s elliptical orbit has a high eccentricity, and only when it passes through the near star point can it produce a significant super infrared, and the total mass does not exceed the upper limit given by Thompson.

Low-temperature cyclic substance

The edge of this ring happens to be facing us. However, Thompson’s millimeter/submillimeter-wave observations do not tend to have a large number of such substances(Thompson KIC 8462852 faded at an average rate of 0.164±0.013 magnitudes per century from 1890 to 1989” 1), and this hypothesis cannot explain the continuous darkening that occurs during the entire observation period of the Keplerian telescope.

The activities of the stars themselves

such as sunspots and magnetic fields. The Boyajian star’s rotation period is 0.88 days, and sunspots or rotate with the stars, but there is no 0.88-day cycle in the decline of the light curve, so it does not match. As the F-type main sequence star, the outer layer of Boyajian star has no convection zone and the rotation is fast, and there should be no obvious activity cycle. So this assumption is very unlikely.

The sunspots in the polar regions

This explains why the drop curve does not have a 0.88-day period, and long-term darkening can also be explained by increasing the area of sunspots. However, this does not meet the characteristics of early-type F main sequence stars and is therefore unlikely.

The pulsation of the star itself.

In this case, the light changes of the stars are often periodic, and the time scale is also inconsistent with the Boyajian star. No one known pulsation mechanism can explain this. Therefore, it is also unlikely.

Artificial celestial body

The unnatural-made building which uses for collecting energy from a star such as Dyson Sphere, which is the possibility people most care about. An easy way to test this possibility is to use the absorption characteristics of different materials and compare the stellar distances obtained by various methods.  (Kepler “Data for KIC-8462852” 22) The panel is a geometric absorber that blocks the stars in different wavelengths indiscriminately, and the absorption of the interstellar material is weaker for red light with longer wavelengths, i.e., the reddening effect. The method of obtaining the stellar distance by comparing the radiation fluxes of different wavebands usually considers the correction brought about by reddening. The range captured by the parallax of the triangle is a pure geometric effect and has nothing to do with the brightness. Therefore, if ESA’s astrometric satellite, GAIA, gets a significantly more considerable distance through the triangulation parallax than the traffic-reddening method, it supports this possibility.

The Drake Equation

The Drake equation is used to counting the number of communicating civilizations in the universe, or more simply, to determine the probability of finding intelligent life in the world (Drake Drake Equation 1)

The first proposed equation by radio astronomer Frank Drake in 1961 computes the number of civilizations to communicate by multiplying several variables. It is usually written as follows according to the search for extraterrestrial information (SETI).

N = R * · FP · ne · fl · fi · fc · L

N = number of civilizations in which electromagnetic radiation in the galaxy can be detected.

R * = formation rate of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life.

fp = Percentage of stars with a planetary system.

ne = number of planets with the environment suitable for life for each solar system.

fl = Percentage of an appropriate planet in which life appears.

fi = Percentage of life with a planet on which intelligent life emerges.

fc = Percentage of civilizations developing technology to release detectable signs into space.

L = the length of time that such civilization releases a detectable signal into space.

Depends on the equation, most of the factor we cannot find the specific data, all the date in the comparison are unsure, such as fl: The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears, which is the most unsure part of the whole equation because the planet could be destroyed by complex reasons. On the other hand, how could we know if there is another civilization in The Milky Way because it is super hard for them to spread information to here? All in all, the Drake equation shows that there is a possibility to have aliens even this equation is only base on a human being.

Conclusion

KIC 8462852’s doubts have not yet been solved, and progress from May to the present is still very limited. What has been published or published at present is the analysis of historical data. There have been a large number of observations since the darkening in May. The results have not yet been published. In these analyses of historical evidence, two phenomena have been studied differently from each other. Support is therefore reliable, that is, the darkening from 2009 to 2013, and the stellar color becoming more “red” when it is dimmed. “Also, based on individual, rough observations cannot prematurely conclude. For example, a site posted sodium and calcium lines before and after blocking, it was not the result of careful processing, and it did not see the publication of research papers. The reliability was in doubt, so it was not considered for the time being. But the thing is, there is no evidence to directly negative the possibility to be a Dyson Sphere star, therefore the existence of that is still positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works-Cited

Boyajian, T. S., LaCourse, D. M., Rappaport, S. A., Fabrycky, D., Fischer, D. A., Gandolfi, D., … & Olah, K. (2016). Planet Hunters IX. KIC 8462852–where’s the flux?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 457(4), 3988-4004.

Schuetz, Marlin, et al. “Optical SETI observations of the anomalous star KIC 8462852.” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 825.1 (2016): L5.

Bodman, E. H., & Quillen, A. (2016). KIC 8462852: transit of a large comet family. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 819(2), L34.

Montet, B. T., & Simon, J. D. (2016). KIC 8462852 faded throughout the Kepler mission. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 830(2), L39.

Drake, F. (1961). The Drake equation. See http://www. activemind.com/Mysterious/Topics/SETI/drake_equation. html.

Schaefer, B. E. (2016). KIC 8462852 faded at an average rate of 0.164±0.013 magnitudes per century from 1890 to 1989. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 822(2), L34.

Boyajian, T. S.; LaCourse, D. M.; Rappaport, S. A.; Fabrycky, D.; Fischer, D. A.; 等. Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852 – Where’s the Flux?. 11 September 2015. arXiv:1509.03622 [astro-ph.SR]. Submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

^ Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E. Intrinsic Colors, Temperatures, and Bolometric Corrections of Pre-main-sequence Stars. The Astrophysical Journal (IOP Publishing). 10 July 2013, 208 (1): 9 (4 September 2013). Bibcode:2013ApJS..208….9P. arXiv:1307.2657. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/208/1/9.

^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Wright, Jason. KIC 8462852: Where’s the Flux?. AstroWright. Pennsylvania State University. 15 October 2015 [16 October 2015].

^ Newsome, John. Space anomaly gets extraterrestrial intelligence experts’ attention. CNN News. 16 October 2015 [16 October 2015].

^ Staff. Discovery of a strange star could mean alien life. Fox News. 15 October 2015 [16 October 2015].

^ 6.0 6.1 King, Bob. What’s Orbiting KIC 8462852 – Shattered Comet or Alien Megastructure?. Universe Today. 16 October 2015 [16 October 2015].

^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Andersen, Ross. The Most Mysterious Star in Our Galaxy. The Atlantic. 13 October 2015 [13 October 2015].

^ Grush, Loren. Why it’s so hard for astronomers to discuss the possibility of alien life. The Verge. 16 October 2015 [17 October 2015].

^ Kaplan, Sarah. The strange star that has serious scientists talking about an alien megastructure. The Washington Post. 15 October 2015 [15 October 2015].

^ 10.0 10.1 Aron, Jacob. Citizen scientists catch cloud of comets orbiting distant star. New Scientist. 18 September 2015 [15 October 2015].

^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Plait, Phil. Did Astronomers Find Evidence of an Alien Civilization? (Probably Not. But Still Cool.). Slate. 14 October 2015 [15 October 2015].

^ KIC10 Search Results. Space Telescope Science Institute. [16 October 2015].

^ 13.0 13.1 Sinnott, Roger W. (2010), Sky & Telescope’s Pocket Sky Atlas, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., ISBN 978-1-931559-31-7 (flexi-softcover, spiral bound). 3rd version 2010 (1st & 2nd printings 2006).

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The Green Night

It’s summer night, hot, but cold inside.

The castle is full of people—women and knights. At that time, I could be the youngest one there. “What is a real knight?” the King Arthur suddenly looking at me with his deep green eyes. I did not except that, but as quick as it is my nature, I response words that I called out for thousands of times when I was an initiate knight: “Honor, wisdom, humble, never afraid!” He looked at me with satisfactory. I firmly believe those words; I already engraved them on my heart–it is my motto, but until the come of that man, I have no clear understanding of that.

It should be another banquet to celebrate another triumphant return of King Arthur—He conquered the East, West, never failed. But for today, the real star is the Green Knight. He was like a green sword, stick into the group; the ladies be shocked and run around like sheep be invaded by a green wolf. Saying he is a knight, but the Green Knight did not even bring any equip—even his sword. That is not the most striking part—He wants someone to cut his head off! While other knights looked at King Arthur, but I consider, it is my chance—just chop head! After my request, the Green Knight looks at me with a strange-looking.

Green Knight’s head was off, but he was still alive. He grasped his hair, looked at me, the thing is, he asked me to come to his place and cut my head off after one year. It is unfair! I was raging in my mind, he has some kind of magic, I don’t! But I cannot say that out loud, King Arthur looking at me, deeply with a smile.

The time in the castle could be very short, I tried not think about the promise, but the day passes, and finally comes. I must go, not only this is a promise for King Arthur and the Green Knight, but also for me, for my chivalry.

The Green Knight lives on the top of a snowy mountain, but I decide to take a rest in a castle under the mountain. The master of the castle is a hunter, he and his wife who has crystal blue eyes, long smooth black hair, and lithe body welcomed me. The wife made an unspeakably delicious borsch for me—she even put shaped basil at the top of the soup as a decorate at that late night. The hunter goes out at whole daytime, so naturally, I and the lady had a great time. It’s the joy of both, I do consider it is a violation of the motto. The night before I go to meet the Green Knight, I got a special gift—a sash could prevent being hurt. I did not think much about that.

I climbed up to the top without a little fear, I almost see the banquet of triumphant return –only for me. I saw him, took a big step in front of him, let him chop my head off. He looks at me, slowly transforms him into the hunter. He looks at me—I cannot make any sound, just a slight wave of his hands, my sash is off. Then he turns back, walks away slowly.

I know that I may not the smartest and the strongest knight, or the humblest, and I may never be. But, here, now, at this moment, I cannot turn around, I cannot return to King Arthur. I can only either live all the rest of my life with shame or die in honor, die in no fear.

“Wait! There is a head you forget to bring away.”

He stopped, turn around, still, with that simile.

I had my return, and I also realize the Green Knight could give his power to others.

After years, there is another Green Knight live in that castle.

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A Rasin in the Sun: Analysis

Introduction

Walter Lee could be the character that is spilled the most ink on, not only he is the only main male character in the novel, but also there are many values and struggles be put on him, he made mistakes because of his fault, he also does the right things follows his heart.

Summary of Walter Lee

Walter Lee in the movie

He is the son of Walter Senior, also the only man in the younger family(Travis be count as a boy). At the beginning of the novel, the author introduces a sense that Walter Lee gives all his money to his son Travis, and that establishes the fundamental tone of the character, he is a person that actually cares about the family, in the novel, there is bad or good, it is a novel that describes a part of the society.

However, the characteristics that let him stand out from others is his willingness to show his manhood. Walter Lee is totally not satisfied with his current job– as a driver to rich people, mainly white. He thinks being a man means to have his own business. Walter Lee always blames the family because he thinks the family does not care about his dream. The most significant scene could be the moment that while Walter Lee talking about his dreams and ambitions, Ruth just directly say: “Your eggs are getting cold” Here, Ruth not only wants to remind Walter Lee with the fact that the food is cold and get eat then but also drag Walter Lee down with something realistic. Here, the egg could also somehow a metaphor for Walter Lee’s ambition. Here introduces the idea that Walter Lee actually does not explain how he would do to achieve his dream; the only thing he is doing is actually just express his indignation that no one could understand him.
But the point is, why people around him should “understand” him anyway, he does no show anything that could make sure, or at least show some indications for his future success.

A Cold Egg

At this point, his family really could not blame him since there is hardly any chance and hope to let him really begin doing his business. But the change comes, the bill, the money that Walter senior have left be the thing that beyond the meaning of a number, but a possible key for everyone’s person dream, for Walter Lee, it is the chance for him to get into the business field, to be the real success male, to live like rich white people, to be the one that have a driver on the car, to be the one that could let his son pick the university “whatever you what to go”, have to admit that the dream Walter Lee has is kind of lovely, but he is too overconfident, his eyes become blind after these imaginations in the head.
After hearing the news that his mom uses the money to buy a house, he just soonly depressed. From the view as a whole family, surly buying a big house with “a lot of sunlight,” a place that Ruth willing to work many different jobs a day to get is a good thing. However, mom still keeps nearly a half more of the money, and decide half of it to Walter Lee’s Liquor Store(In addition, the reason it could be called as a “good idea” is people like drink, which is obviously a weak point), and half of it to support Benetha’s doctor dream.

Then, Walter Lee begins to make his first mistake; he does not just use his part of the money to invest in the liquor store, but also Benetha’s part, no need to say the money could buy one more big house with a little remain, it is big money. He does not think about it and not talk about this after he was doing it; he just gives the money to another guy.

Now, Walter Lee makes his second mistake that he does not even think about it, he does not do any ensure job on that, he just let another guy takes his money go–his money, his dream, the dead body of his bloodied father, the dream of Bethetha also the family, he is too careless. Not only that, Walter Lee looks really not good at doing business stuff; he never learned about it, never talks about how will the liquor store works, and never introduce the two guys to the family; he really knows nothing about all the things. Surely, his a careless and somewhat stupid man from what has he done.

Later parts are not that dramatic, he in depresses, and say no to Landner saying he is would not give in to these Oppressions.

Advanced Discussion of Walter Lee

A dream is one kind of motivation, and surely it is powerful since it could be the thing one person dying to get or something else important. But dream so-called dream but not a plan or purpose, a dream is something that might not be achieved in the entire life at all. Here leads out a very interesting topic use the example of Walter Lee: Will Walter Lee feels better if the check does not come at all?
We know that the check is a surprise, before Walter Senior’s death, no one knows there would be such big money comes. And they live, well, kind of normal, at least living. After the check arrives, the family get big, nice, dream-achieve level house; And the original apartment could be sold for extra money, but they also need to pay a lot more for the house compare to the previous one, will endure offensive eyesight by living in the white neighborhood. For Walter Lee himself, not only he needs to endure the pressure the family will put on him because he ruins that half or more money, but more importantly, what called hope, what called a dream, what called the self-belief just gone–like a raisin in the Sun. He would have no so-called “male power” in front of his family. He can always chatter about how the family stops him from being a success, but know the fact prove he cannot do it. His dream, at this point, is dead.

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Myself and Another Me

Life, should be as perfect and harmony as a sphere which has the philosophical closeness and symmetry. Naturally, I keep this obsession into science, then I found I was wrong, on both.

The family condition of mine is not quite lovely, that is not very far from the “typical family problem” in many shows, and because of that I tend to absorb information more than expressing. Back to the time, the most frequently used body parts of mine to interact with the world are brain, eyes, and ears, the nose is not included because of my rhinitis. Sit at the back left of a car, I staring at the front seat to create extraordinary connections between leather patterns, hear all the things people around discussing, maybe shocking them by pointing out a better solution, then close my eyes go into my inside mind palace.

Me as such did not have the willingness to build interaction with others. People around talking always carried with emotions which hide their real original ideas, also words from my mouth maybe more compact but still lose its accuracy during transportation. Such encoding and decoding are low efficient, I am not a nerd, but people get tired when they know they need to do something not that useful every day. However, human being have an original impulse to communicate with people, I did not find other people as a friend but create another me instead. Since that, I got a step into a loop.

The way people to think is talk or ask the questions toward someone inside his mind, but that is more like to be talking to self, just using the language to help thinking. But I let the one who am I talking to become a real entity, he is no longer an intermediary but a real personality. I use “you” to call him, he could immediately understand my point sometimes even before I really say something. He is a good talker, also a great listener. I was amazed by such a high efficiency of communication. Not only “him” in current, but an infinite number of “him” in the past. One day I went out from my own apartment and found it was raining. When I was in the mood of manic, surprisingly I found there was an umbrella in my bag, what I did first? Saying to myself: “Thanks for your considerate, me in the past.” Every time I cannot control my emotion, he would bring me to think out of the box and do the best logical decision. They are both fathers and brothers, also, they are me. That’s really an extraordinary relationship.

That’s a boring black raining night, quite a silence, only the noise of my 3D printer. I was waiting for the time I set to go to the bed by browsing random stuff. Suddenly, There was something called “Parity violation” shocking to me. Basically, if we look at a spinning particle in a mirror, it should spin in a inverse direction, just like a person shaking his left hand, but in the mirror, it looks the right hand is moving. However, some particles in some condition, even are mirror reflected, still, spin in the same direction. That’s just like saying a mirrored particle has different properties. The Person in the mirror is not that person, but a different one.

I saw a slim bright light beam outside the window, then heard a powerful noise came over then“Let’s take a shower, shall we?” I said. “Yeah, why not?”He follows back.

The white noise produced by the water drops hitting the ground is perfect for helping people think deeply. “You always know what I gonna say, you are my best brother, my firmest umbrella”  “But, where are you?” Only the silence but the echo of my voice. “You! Locked me into a loop! Whatever I say, whatever you agree or not, your answer is what I want, my answer is what you want. We are one particle, but you in the mirror. The night still black, raining, and quite, but I am sure I was renewed with the water fog reflecting the shining golden bathroom heater light around.

The key to social communication is not the exchange of information, but makes everyone happy. I began to say something meaningless just let people around smile, I do need to show my ability but my classmates would spontaneously invite me to be the team leader. Sometimes, people come to me is not for finding a solution but just for spreading their emotion. It is human being. He is still around me, help to keep myself, think outside the emotional box, but we are just not in the loop anymore.

“Diversity is essential to happiness” It’s my new favorite motto. People always tried to set Romanesque symmetric definitions. Just like lock the sex to male and female, but now we realize there are LGBT or even more than 68 different sex, in the strict sense, the symmetry of male and female is broken. Or Do the physics really describe the world beautifully and accurately? The universe is running in its own way, maybe we called “ grateful formulas” are just try to approach the world this function. Thus, whatever life or science, people should get rid of the paranoid idea of beauty in form, but respect the fact of chaotic, diversity, and unknown.

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我的第二脑活

我第二常干的“脑活”是构建记忆宫殿,一般是我所熟悉的地方,比如我生活过6年的小学,我就如一位身着白衣的圣贤,围绕着这宫殿的建筑工程,构建着学校的每一方面,每朵可人的花瓣,桌椅的裂缝和书的封面。即使如今现实的学校早已不同,但要是某人要我画出当时学校的建筑蓝图,我可以极为精确的—画出大部分,因为实际上我并不能在脑中完成这宫殿的构建,每当建造即将完成,我的大脑就彻底地,完全地失控了,海量奇怪的又叫人不安的信息与数据化为实体冲击着我的未完成的杰作—我越是想让它们停下,他们就更为猖狂,混乱就指数式的膨胀—直到一切都毁于一旦。这是双相情感障碍中躁狂的部分。

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[Serial] The Automorphism Rocket

*2019/7/8

Before ALL:

Hello folks, since the summer began, I have to say a project I have planed for a long time should get into its path now. And it is a serial, so I will update the lastest processes as I do.

Basically, the goal is to build a fully fictional rocket which has a Thrust Vector Control(TVC) which allows the rocket could control the thrust direction stay toward the earth, and a panel with velocity sensors, direction sensors on so the SCM could compute.

Then, I would add more functions to the rocket, such as muti-thrusts. So finally allow the rocket to get into space(stratosphere?).

OK, there are few steps I need to do in order to make this goal comes true.

Stage One, build a TVC

Stage Two, build a control panel and write software

Stage Three, build a rocket as a whole

Then, test, test, test…

If I can make it, then add more functions and let it go the space.

Now, everything starts here.

Stage One: Build a TVC

Prototype One

Prototype 1:

The video was made a long time ago, so there are many things not been added compared to now I, but the idea is the same. Basically, I 3D-printed a model to physically exam my idea, and know I find there are two main problems need me to fix.

  1. I need grooves and rooms to fit my two servo motors
  2. The outside ring needs to control the inner ring but not directly connect the central, otherwise, the move of one axis would affect the other one, simply to say, they will be stuck.

*2019/7/28

The first “usable” TVC is done for building!

But there are still a lot of problems

  1. the size of the inner ring is too big
  2. the total design is not compact enough

*2019/8/1

After Serval models failed, the usable prototype is coming!

*testing platform is done!

Platform

*9/3/2019

I find the problem is, when I connect the rx tx ports, the board would just not working, ok, so I begin to use soft serial pin to 6 and 7. Then I find this is caused by the Arduino board Uno itself, so I change it.

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What?

随着Minecraft的多年发展与版本迭代,现在终于可以分为三大派:

1.基岩版(XBOX,WIN10 UWP, 手机)

2.JAVA版(也就是之前电脑上玩的那种)

3.网易版(辣鸡)

基岩版(BedRock)是从PE手机版脱出的版本,以前的版本总是和JAVA版大步脱节,可现在已经平头齐步走了。个人非常看好BR版,因为其平台整合的很不错,各个设备都可以玩,不论是个人联机还是教育应用都很有优势,未来开发者社区会倾倒更多资源。

Why?

这里可能有人要问了,既然已经有了领域了,为什么还有自己开基岩版服务器?

首先,领域服延迟高,其次,对多人支持不是很好,最高也就10个人,也不便宜。

最后客制化程度也很低。

How?

这里可爱的开发者团队已经开发出了基岩版服务器包(Alpha)所以只要按照我这里的步骤一步步来,在5分钟内就能配置好属于你的基岩版Minecraft服务器

服务器的选择:我推荐阿里云和腾讯云,阿里云不差钱的就搞吧,腾讯云还没试,但听说不错。

1.去阿里云(https://chuangke.aliyun.com/invite?userCode=z66uogjh)(吃我邀请码得优惠)买一台ECS服务器,最低配置就可以了,位置选靠近你地理位置的地方,系统注意了:要选Ubuntu 18.04 及以上的,第一次建议用按量付费试试水

配置

2.这样你的服务器算是开好了,点管理,左上角找到“重置实例密码”来设定密码

正常开启

3.因为我们需要19132端口来连接服务器,所以必须在安全组中添加

在本ECS云服务器实例中,点击 本实例安全组-配置规则-添加安全组规则 在入方向(出方向默认全端口开放)添加两条端口范围为”19132“授权对象为“0.0.0.0/0”的规则(一条为TCP,一条为UDP)

安全组策略

4.得到 public key:还记得之前我们设置过密码嘛?因为新版本的Xshell需要密匙文件才让你登录,所以我们这边再下载一下这个文件(妥善保管,不会让你下第二次的)在网络与安全-密匙对 中创建密匙,名字随意,把.pem文件保存. 然后点绑定密匙,将你的服务器绑定此密匙 然后点重启

key

5. 现在我们需要一个工具来连接这台服务器,别人喜欢用Putty,但我更爱Xshell

好啦,我白给你们这个工具吧:http://gofile.me/4hSto/2396fO9FW

在控制台找到服务器的公网IP,复制下来

打开Xshell, 选择New,新建一个连接, Name随意,Host就填公网IP. 默认用户名root之后就点Yes. 之后会要求Public key 这边选择一下文件所在位置,因为阿里云对key没加密,就不用写密码. 然后你会看到连接的窗口灯变绿,表示连接成功.

这里我可以用password因为我之前已经用了public key

成功连接

这边对Xshell做个小设置, 以免无法按退格: 点 File-Properties-Keyboard, 把两个ASCII 127点上

keyboard设置

6.下面来配置服务器

首先输入sudo apt-get update回车检查一下更新,不然坑爹阿里云没法让你下解压指令

1.输入apt install unzip回车下载解压命令

2.输入mkdir mc回车来创建名为”mc”的文件夹

3.输入cd /root/mc回车 进入此文件夹

-到网址为( https://www.minecraft.net/en-us/download/server/bedrock/ )在右边UBUNTU部分同意下条款, 鼠标右击复制下载链接,得到(https://minecraft.azureedge.net/bin-linux/bedrock-server-目前版本.zip)

4.输入wget https://minecraft.azureedge.net/bin-linux/bedrock-server-目前版本.zip回车, 下载服务器安装包

5.输入unzip bedrock-server-目前版本.zip回车, 解压

6.输入LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. ./bedrock_server回车 开启服务器 并进入服务器后台

大功告成!!:现在去客户端-服务器 中输入公网IP就可以进入了

(在后台输入 stop回车 来关闭后台)

Advanced:

因为要保持服务器后台时终在线, 我们要装载Screen程序

输入 apt-get install screen回车 装载程序

启动BR服务器之前先输入 screen -S mc回车 启动screen

再cd /root/mc回车 进入文件夹

最后 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. ./bedrock_server回车 启动服务器

这样下次输入screen -ls 查看正在运行的程序 前面有几个数字

screen -r [那几个数字] 恢复窗口

screen -ls->找到数字->打开窗口

*先写到这里, 之后写怎么把地图迁移进服务器

我自己建和基友玩的服务器:[49.234.17.116] 大家可以感受一下

相信会看我文章的人非熊人

Deemo

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“The Ring”

At the wide, white house, the “master” dressed in black, stands upon the platform. “Let’s celebrate the coming of our friends, shall we?” he says to the children before him. He is their father, but not by blood. The children, dressed in white, reply “yes” one by one, with planned perfect meticulous smiles.

“Sorry, sir, but what are we celebrating?”, the youngest little “stander,” said.

The “master” askance at him with unknown mean. Saying: “Oh, you people do not hear the history yet” “Surely, you must familiar with the story before the Cold War, because that’s the thing people want to tell”

“Why?”

“Because that is the period of good.”

“How bad after that? Are we live in good?”

“People work in Caltech found if they using quantum entanglement technique, they could transform one matter to gas in sudden, and affect matters near it, transform them to the same phase as it, they called it “Phase Assimilation” .”

“That’s powerful, isn’t it?”

“That’s why the Soviet Union let it become a weapon, and create a world we now live in”

The master points outside, the child’s line of insight follows that, ends at the giant ring.

“Do you know the Rings of Saturn?”

“Yes, the rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System, that orbit about Saturn. The ring particles are made almost entirely of water ice, with a trace component of rocky material. And that may be formed by objects which come inside the Roche limit and split to pieces…”

“They all taught you in the class, right? But have you ever pay attention to this giant plate around our planet earth?”

The little child stays for silence for a few seconds, looking at the ring. Whispering by his heart: “how couldn’t I notice that elegant thing?”

 It is a huge ring, spreads 300 kilometers wide on the ground on average, around the whole planet. At the start of its formation, the heavier matter of earth first be phase-changed, projectile to the most outside the Roche limit zone of the earth which are the edge of matters comes together or split to pieces, people call it “Heavy Hand”. At that time, the self-rotation axis changed by the unbalanced losing of self-mass, divide the world to two half by the ring, 20% of USSR left the to the side which located with the USA, people later called it the “United hemisphere”, and the rest of the USSR body locate at the another, called the “Communized hemisphere”. The mass of earth still losing due to the gravity force from the “Heavy Hand” and the Centrifugal net force created by the self-rotating, the gravity of the earth is not that strong anymore.

“Yes, Sir, No man-made things could ever come close to the ring…yet, so we disconnect with another hemisphere for 80 years”

“That’s why!” The “master” suddenly goes rage, his eyes extended to large with a crazy laugh, “We live in such buildings, white, immutable. And train you to workers, works for me! To recover the freaking space industry!” He keeps himself in silence for a second, then “I know you would not understand me. I born at the period of the Civil War, really great time. I chose to be a rocket scientist, and rocket chose me. I am 87 years old now, at that time, I am only 17, 17! I am old now, getting old in such a pathetic world. And you, you are all pathetic.

“Sorry, sir… I do not understand, what you mean “pathetic”?”

“You would not understand…forever” The master goes back to cold immediately, no one knows what he exactly thinking about.”

“Should they be called children?” The master stand by, think in his head “These standers are puppets, they could only be free in their “mother’s” wombs” “At the day I become master from rocket scientist, I visited the “Red House” for producing standers, all the things happened still embarked in my head.” “Children originally tend to play and do things they like, people using conditioning to control their future behaviors, if babies tried to play, they would play a very loud shocking noise, I was shocked by that, to be honest. Then these babies would not cry, because…I do not know what they experienced, but they just do cry, after that, they just stop play and stand up for the next instruction. They become the standers. What a “beautiful” world”

“I let you go outside for 35 minutes,” The master said with unexpected

“OK”

“Why? Why? Why? Why does he let me go out? Am I just said anything wrong, would I be killed? What would happen?” beta thinks in his head.

34 minutes, 37 seconds

Beta open the heavy white door, it is the first time he gets out of the house after he got five years ago. He was 2 at that time, now he is seven. The door open with the sound of old, apparently the master himself does not like to walk out.

The world is shockingly the same, Beta still remember there are some men dress in grey walking slowing when he was 2 on the street, but now, things seem to be just an older version of them, just more feeling of fade. People do not talk to each other. There is no brightness in their eyes. They are still walking dead.

“Why the master wants to go out? There are no interesting things, nothing new, just like five years ago”

17 minutes, 14 seconds

The ring still big, strong, even getting larger than before, would people from two sides meet? Do they want to meet?

“It is a beautiful, elegant”

5 minutes, 32 seconds before ship across the “giant hand”

All the people suddenly stand up, do not move, freeze, like old trees but with an unbelievable strong spirit, they are waiting for something, they look at the sky, the ring.

“What’s wrong? What are they doing?”

3…

2…

1…

Beta feel there is something shined a little. Then something he would never forget in his life happens.

People cry, with a smile on their face, old men, young people, grey, white, black…

They are all celebrating. They run to the grassland stand down, smile and cry in silence…

            The world becomes different… become like 80 years ago

            Beta go back to the “home”, he finds the master is smiling, saying: “Our ship met the ship from another side, and we fight…”

            “Our friend is back, the long depression period ends, it is the new beautiful world”

Beta look up, look at the wall, there is a maxim on there:

THE WORLD KEEPS RUNNING, NOT BECAUSE OF PEACE AND LOVE, BUT ENDLESS DISPUTE AND COUNTERMINE

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Rookie speech 🙂

When a little young baby just born, learning occur at every moment the person lives on the earth, study let people become completed, also helps them to live in this society. One’s future is to decide by learning.
Teachers teach students? Right? But how many of these relationships could be in a highly efficient way? When you in school, how many times you see there are some students set away from the speaker, and do their things but not actually hear what does the person who is currently talking saying? When the people talking accompany with other people’s voice, he could be very tired because he needs to higher the frequency and the intensity of the voice.

So, it is vital to get all the students’ attention at one moment with low cause, but how? Even many strict teachers set roles to his students, after few times class, there always be some students not pay their attention to the teacher at the time they need.


I want to mention my AP Biology teacher, Ms. Rosales, she is the one who demonstrates the psychology tool is such a strong tool to apply in real life.
I still remember the first thing Ms. Rosales ask us to do is something called if…then. It really simple, if she hit the table or things in a certain rhyme, the students should response that with another rhyme for quite.


It looks very simple, and the reality also, but it really let the order of class improve in a massive way. I still remember when Ms. Rosales out of the school for some personal issue, there is a teacher called Ms. Romasa, well, she is kind of nice, but she do not have the what we now called “pa-pa” skill as Ms. Rosales has, mostly, when the class getting disorder and loud, she tries to take the control by yelling in a loud way, that really takes some time and spirit, and only when students think she is angry then they become quite a little. The class still goes on, but not that orderly.


There actually are some very deep and integrated mechanisms behind that. In psychology, what Ms. Rosales apply is called Classical conditioning. There is a very famous experiment did by Palov involved with his dog.


A dog naturally has the willingness to eat meat, so they saliva when they see meat, it is called unconditioned response because it is naturally happening. However, how could we let dog saliva without using meat, but something else, something like…the sound of the ring? The sound of the ring called natural stimuli because the sound of the ring itself has nothing to do with letting dong saliva. What Palov did is ring the ring when he shows the dog with meat, and repeated it for several times, then he finds when he only rings the bell, the dog continues to saliva without meat, the natural stimuli become conditioned stimuli.


What Ms. Rosales do to the students is a similar thing from the perspective of mechanism. At the first days Ms. Rosales began to teach us, she could be very serious because she keeps let students train that. Students naturally response as quiet and tractable when their teacher gets serious. So here teacher get serious is an unconditioned stimulus, and students become quite is an unconditioned response. And the “pa-pa” hits are just natural stimuli, it is true that students know what they should do when they hear it, but their body is not be conditioned yet which means there are not that many people would respond in a quick way. However, after one week’s training, the quantity change cause a quality change, students could response the “pa-pa” sign immediately without any delay, and they would be quiet and pay attention to the teacher.


However, it is not the end, there is something called generalization, which just means the subject would response similar stimuli with one conditioned response or response the stimuli with a similar response. In Palov’s dog experiment, the dog not only responds to the sound of the ring, but other things make a similar sound, like whistle or computer “bi-bi” sound.
Just like in the class, sometimes Ms. Rosales would make different rhyme by mistake, but student response that with same high speed. Also, students would not only be quiet and pay attention to the teacher but also turn down the laptop, iPad or other devices.


The key component here is repeated, if not, extinction happens, or we can say “forget”. If Palov does not train his dog in a certain curve, finally the dog would no saliva to the sound of the ring.
Ms. Romsas had taught us for a long time period, on the first day Ms. Rosales’s class, many students “forget” to respond to the “pa-pa” hit. They got extinction.


To hold the best curve of conditioning? Try to do it in random time gap and random frequency in densely to prevent the appearing of extinction.
Hope you can apply to your life successfully.

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