比如：我小的时候看过一本叫做“抽筋神探”的漫画，其主角的名字就是“一鸣”， 然后过了一段时间，学校旁开起了一家“一鸣真鲜奶吧”，我就不由自主的认为这两者之间有某种联系。Loading Likes...
比如：我小的时候看过一本叫做“抽筋神探”的漫画，其主角的名字就是“一鸣”， 然后过了一段时间，学校旁开起了一家“一鸣真鲜奶吧”，我就不由自主的认为这两者之间有某种联系。Loading Likes...
还是挺开心的，more and more ：）
Two Ideas, Two Discoveries
The Collapse of The Spiritual Support
Moira is a main character who plays a big role in The Handmaid’s Tale, she shows the power Gilead have by her fallen process. Moria is a brave and strong woman and her characteristics can be defined by all things she does. She is an extraordinary girl “in her purple overalls, one dangly earring, the gold fingernail she wore to be eccentric” (pg. 47) because those apparel on her is still very ahead even in the time of the USA, and the word “eccentric” shows that those apparel are not that mild for most of the people. The things wear on people shows their features, so by the apparel Moria wears, she is an independent and extreme woman. “‘Go on back,’ Moria said to them. ‘Don’t make a thing of it, what if she walks in?’” (pg. 228). Moria here is trying to calm down the situation, because Janine’s crazy behavior may let Aunts come. Moria is the first handmaid who begins to control the situation when Janine begin to behave like she is crazy and other handmaids are do not know what to do but make noises. Moira is the leader of “sheep”, this solving trouble ability shows her power and independence. Moira is the only one who brave enough to escape from the house “Moira was out there somewhere.” (pg.143), here is the sentence said by Offred which shows the thing that Moira is already escaped from the house. Moira is the only one let the escaping plan becomes true from the heart, which shows she is a brave and extraordinary woman. All things above shows Moria is a brave and great woman, which looks she actually could be the bravest character in the novel. The thing is, Moria as the symbol of independence and strengthen, in the club of Commanders, Moira still be corrupted by the society and be a prostitute willingly “You should figure out some way of getting here.” (pg. 261), Moira here is thinks nothing about to escape but wants to stay in the club forever and let it becomes a kind of honor, which is the key to show how powerful the new government of Gilead is. Moira displays the strength of the government–how it could reduce even a woman of rebellious strength to a worn woman dressed in a tattered bunny costume. Moira is every bit as much of a sexual object as those forced to be vessels for pregnancy–maybe even more so. She shows the difficulty of escape this sexual totalitarian society, because of that difficulty, Gilead is a very powerful government.
Color, Red, and Bondage
Red as color through the whole book, which plays an important role in The Handmaid’s Tale. Red is the symbol of bondage and shows the limitation of handmaids’ rights. Offred always talks about how uncomfortable she is to wear those red robes “when it is muddy, in July and August, you wear inside them.” (pg. 65), here Offred is talking about that she needs to wear a hot red robe even on such a hot day. Which replace the feeling of “feel free to wear things you like.” It is unreasonable for handmaids to wear those closed type robes in such a fuggy day, but handmaids have no choice to refuse. They even cannot decide the cloth they could dress, it is not only just a simple rule but also can see the view of the rights handmaids has from such a small thing, handmaids have no freedom. “Her dress is crisp cool cotton. For her, it’s blue, watercolor, not this red of mine that sucks in heat and blazes with it at the same time.”(pg. 213), here Offred talks about the different clothes between handmaids and wives, not all the women in Gilead must wear those uncomfortable red robes but only handmaids. Only handmaid’s freedom is limited that much but not like wives can dress cool cotton. Red is handmaid’s color, the color of bondage. “A shape, red with white wings around the face, a shape like mine, a nondescript woman in red carrying a basket.”(pg. 28), here Offred describes the uniform they wear when the first time she met Ofglen. The red robe handmaids dress let they cannot have obvious features, which means those red robes cover and remove their personalities. Gilead wants handmaids to lose their features by the way of wearing the almost same red robes, which is a bondage to limited handmaids’ characteristics. “Here there are no chairs. Our area is cordoned off with a silky twisted scarlet rope, like the kind they used to have in movie theatres to restrain the customers”(pg. 226), here the red rope is the tool to keep handmaids’ order in the Salvaging. Handmaids are limited by only a red silky rope which could be easily broken, the thing limited handmaids is not a strong and hard wall, but the red rope, which is the spirit limitation. The control of Gilead is in the inside of handmaids, they feel powerless against the society. The scarlet rope is the symbol of controlling and limiting. Red, spirit bondage, like a dome covered each handmaid’s mind.Loading Likes...
By the recent research and observation, there is a star numbered KIC-8462852 spread a strange flux and decreasing of its brightness without clear periodicity. By the suspects, people have already given and the Drake equation, there is no significant evidence to prove that that is an impossibility; therefore, the inference is there is a possibility to be a Dyson Sphere, which means there is also have a possibility to have another civilization.
Dyson Sphere, astronomy, star, KIC-8462853, alien
According to the latest experimental observation conducted by the Planet Hunter Program by Zooniverse , the brightness of star KIC-8462852 has decreased about 22% surprisingly without apparent periodicity by Boyajian’s confirming “These show that the flux is relatively constant for most of that time, but is punctuated by a number of substantial dips in flux, including a 15% drop near day 800, and a whole sequence of dips (with one reaching a depth of 22%)”(Boyajian 3). Such kind of exciting and strange behavior of star KIC-8462852 causes an extensive and hot discussion, and some media reports even show it is a sign of discovery of alien, which caused a considerable influence in public. There are many different kinds of theories about this unnormal behavior such as Eva claim that KIC-8462852’s behavior is caused by the transit of a large comet family. (Bodman 1), a cloud of gas, error of the instrument etc.. However, the study and research are just at the beginning, because the specific and one-directing reports are not shown yet. Here comes the question—Is KIC-
8462852 A Dyson Sphere?
What is Dyson Sphere?
The first thing will be going to talk about is: What is Dyson Sphere? Recalling Stapledon’s description, Dyson proposed similar structures in a scientific paper in 1960. Dyson realized that alien civilizations could be recognized by their waste heat, which would be detectable as infrared radiation. Dyson proposed that really advanced civilization would re-engineer thrive solar systems, perhaps dismantling planets to form a shell of satellites around their star to capture its energy.( Tate, “Dyson Spheres: How Advanced Alien Civilizations Would Conquer the Galaxy (Infographic)”) We could divide civilizations to three levels by Kardashev scale :I civilization, which means this civilization could completely use the whole energy of its living plane and its satellite; II civilization, which means this civilization could collect the whole energy of Galaxy; III civilization, which means this civilization could completely use the whole energy of the galactic system. (Tate, “Dyson Spheres: How Advanced Alien Civilizations Would Conquer the Galaxy (Infographic)”). Our civilization level is 0.8 which means we even not a civilization.
In the observation program “Planet Hunter” by Zooniverse which a public welfare program is, for people to find interesting stars by human eyes which hard for the instrument to do. Volunteers found an interesting planet which shows a strange behavior. (Boyajian 2) The Star KIC-8462852 is not distributing light evenly but looks like be covered by something, scientists are already excluded from the problem of data error and aircraft covered, people give a lot of reason for that.
The first guessing comes to people’s mind is the problem of instruments. By the words from Boyajian: “We confirm that the dipping signals in the data are not caused by
any instrumental or data processing artifact, and thus are astrophysical in origin.”(Boyajian 2) Before publishing the paper, people have already checked the data analysis software and detector of Kepler telescope, photons become dark on several different pixels on CCD, and four CCDs on the telescope show this situation in different time（Coughlin et al. 2014）, which mean it cannot be problem of CCD, some other teams also built and check the original data with the same result, so it is nearly impossible to be this kind of situation.
Covering by Asters in Solar System
Calculations show that if the shelter is located inside the solar system, it must have a diameter of at least 1 astronomical unit, a distance of 10,000 astronomical units from the Sun (ie the scale of the Kuiper Belt to the Oort Cloud), and a distance away from the ecliptic plane (Boyajian’s yellow tube of 62 degrees). . Considering that humans have little knowledge of the outer solar system, it is unclear how large this possibility is.
Surrounded by a star-stabilized object (such as a black hole) and its accretion disk
However, the probability that it happens to be seen by us is very small, only one in a million. Considering that only 200,000 stars were observed by Kepler, the probability is very small.
Comet or other
Boyajian’s original paper already discussed the situation of comets (Boyajian “What the flux” 17). Bodman and Quillen of the University of Rochester believe that the second large drop in luminosity (that is, a decrease around 1500 days) can be explained by the same group of comets(“Where’s the flux” 2), most of which are in the same orbit, possibly by the same event. Generated, such as the disintegration of planets or the gravitational disturbance of companion stars. To block 20% of the main star’s light, it requires 30 comets with a radius of 100 km or 300 with a radius of 10 km. It is still difficult to explain the decline of the first time (that is, around the 800th day) because the first decline is smoother and slower, and the number of comets required increases to 70 (radius 100 km) or 700 respectively. (10 km radius). The comet’s elliptical orbit has a high eccentricity, and only when it passes through the near star point can it produce a significant super infrared, and the total mass does not exceed the upper limit given by Thompson.
Low-temperature cyclic substance
The edge of this ring happens to be facing us. However, Thompson’s millimeter/submillimeter-wave observations do not tend to have a large number of such substances(Thompson KIC 8462852 faded at an average rate of 0.164±0.013 magnitudes per century from 1890 to 1989” 1), and this hypothesis cannot explain the continuous darkening that occurs during the entire observation period of the Keplerian telescope.
The activities of the stars themselves
such as sunspots and magnetic fields. The Boyajian star’s rotation period is 0.88 days, and sunspots or rotate with the stars, but there is no 0.88-day cycle in the decline of the light curve, so it does not match. As the F-type main sequence star, the outer layer of Boyajian star has no convection zone and the rotation is fast, and there should be no obvious activity cycle. So this assumption is very unlikely.
The sunspots in the polar regions
This explains why the drop curve does not have a 0.88-day period, and long-term darkening can also be explained by increasing the area of sunspots. However, this does not meet the characteristics of early-type F main sequence stars and is therefore unlikely.
The pulsation of the star itself.
In this case, the light changes of the stars are often periodic, and the time scale is also inconsistent with the Boyajian star. No one known pulsation mechanism can explain this. Therefore, it is also unlikely.
Artificial celestial body
The unnatural-made building which uses for collecting energy from a star such as Dyson Sphere, which is the possibility people most care about. An easy way to test this possibility is to use the absorption characteristics of different materials and compare the stellar distances obtained by various methods. (Kepler “Data for KIC-8462852” 22) The panel is a geometric absorber that blocks the stars in different wavelengths indiscriminately, and the absorption of the interstellar material is weaker for red light with longer wavelengths, i.e., the reddening effect. The method of obtaining the stellar distance by comparing the radiation fluxes of different wavebands usually considers the correction brought about by reddening. The range captured by the parallax of the triangle is a pure geometric effect and has nothing to do with the brightness. Therefore, if ESA’s astrometric satellite, GAIA, gets a significantly more considerable distance through the triangulation parallax than the traffic-reddening method, it supports this possibility.
The Drake Equation
The Drake equation is used to counting the number of communicating civilizations in the universe, or more simply, to determine the probability of finding intelligent life in the world (Drake Drake Equation 1)
The first proposed equation by radio astronomer Frank Drake in 1961 computes the number of civilizations to communicate by multiplying several variables. It is usually written as follows according to the search for extraterrestrial information (SETI).
N = R * · FP · ne · fl · fi · fc · L
N = number of civilizations in which electromagnetic radiation in the galaxy can be detected.
R * = formation rate of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life.
fp = Percentage of stars with a planetary system.
ne = number of planets with the environment suitable for life for each solar system.
fl = Percentage of an appropriate planet in which life appears.
fi = Percentage of life with a planet on which intelligent life emerges.
fc = Percentage of civilizations developing technology to release detectable signs into space.
L = the length of time that such civilization releases a detectable signal into space.
Depends on the equation, most of the factor we cannot find the specific data, all the date in the comparison are unsure, such as fl: The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears, which is the most unsure part of the whole equation because the planet could be destroyed by complex reasons. On the other hand, how could we know if there is another civilization in The Milky Way because it is super hard for them to spread information to here? All in all, the Drake equation shows that there is a possibility to have aliens even this equation is only base on a human being.
KIC 8462852’s doubts have not yet been solved, and progress from May to the present is still very limited. What has been published or published at present is the analysis of historical data. There have been a large number of observations since the darkening in May. The results have not yet been published. In these analyses of historical evidence, two phenomena have been studied differently from each other. Support is therefore reliable, that is, the darkening from 2009 to 2013, and the stellar color becoming more “red” when it is dimmed. “Also, based on individual, rough observations cannot prematurely conclude. For example, a site posted sodium and calcium lines before and after blocking, it was not the result of careful processing, and it did not see the publication of research papers. The reliability was in doubt, so it was not considered for the time being. But the thing is, there is no evidence to directly negative the possibility to be a Dyson Sphere star, therefore the existence of that is still positive.
Boyajian, T. S., LaCourse, D. M., Rappaport, S. A., Fabrycky, D., Fischer, D. A., Gandolfi, D., … & Olah, K. (2016). Planet Hunters IX. KIC 8462852–where’s the flux?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 457(4), 3988-4004.
Schuetz, Marlin, et al. “Optical SETI observations of the anomalous star KIC 8462852.” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 825.1 (2016): L5.
Bodman, E. H., & Quillen, A. (2016). KIC 8462852: transit of a large comet family. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 819(2), L34.
Montet, B. T., & Simon, J. D. (2016). KIC 8462852 faded throughout the Kepler mission. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 830(2), L39.
Drake, F. (1961). The Drake equation. See http://www. activemind.com/Mysterious/Topics/SETI/drake_equation. html.
Schaefer, B. E. (2016). KIC 8462852 faded at an average rate of 0.164±0.013 magnitudes per century from 1890 to 1989. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 822(2), L34.
Boyajian, T. S.; LaCourse, D. M.; Rappaport, S. A.; Fabrycky, D.; Fischer, D. A.; 等. Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852 – Where’s the Flux?. 11 September 2015. arXiv:1509.03622 [astro-ph.SR]. Submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
^ Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E. Intrinsic Colors, Temperatures, and Bolometric Corrections of Pre-main-sequence Stars. The Astrophysical Journal (IOP Publishing). 10 July 2013, 208 (1): 9 (4 September 2013). Bibcode:2013ApJS..208….9P. arXiv:1307.2657. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/208/1/9.
^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Wright, Jason. KIC 8462852: Where’s the Flux?. AstroWright. Pennsylvania State University. 15 October 2015 [16 October 2015].
^ Newsome, John. Space anomaly gets extraterrestrial intelligence experts’ attention. CNN News. 16 October 2015 [16 October 2015].
^ Staff. Discovery of a strange star could mean alien life. Fox News. 15 October 2015 [16 October 2015].
^ 6.0 6.1 King, Bob. What’s Orbiting KIC 8462852 – Shattered Comet or Alien Megastructure?. Universe Today. 16 October 2015 [16 October 2015].
^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Andersen, Ross. The Most Mysterious Star in Our Galaxy. The Atlantic. 13 October 2015 [13 October 2015].
^ Grush, Loren. Why it’s so hard for astronomers to discuss the possibility of alien life. The Verge. 16 October 2015 [17 October 2015].
^ Kaplan, Sarah. The strange star that has serious scientists talking about an alien megastructure. The Washington Post. 15 October 2015 [15 October 2015].
^ 10.0 10.1 Aron, Jacob. Citizen scientists catch cloud of comets orbiting distant star. New Scientist. 18 September 2015 [15 October 2015].
^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Plait, Phil. Did Astronomers Find Evidence of an Alien Civilization? (Probably Not. But Still Cool.). Slate. 14 October 2015 [15 October 2015].
^ KIC10 Search Results. Space Telescope Science Institute. [16 October 2015].
^ 13.0 13.1 Sinnott, Roger W. (2010), Sky & Telescope’s Pocket Sky Atlas, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., ISBN 978-1-931559-31-7 (flexi-softcover, spiral bound). 3rd version 2010 (1st & 2nd printings 2006).Loading Likes...
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